Minorities within Minorities:
Filipino Muslim Women in the Midst of Armed Conflict
Ma. Teresa G. Tuason
C. Dominik Güss
Abstract: The war between the Philippine state and the Muslims in Southern Philippines has spanned three decades and has caused many lives. This is an ongoing local war on numerous fronts: Muslims vs. Catholic religions and cultures; a struggle for political autonomy and governance; and hostilities over ownership of land, sovereignty, and economic resources. The intensity of the trauma of the war on women is heightened because of the context of the war which includes severe poverty, inadequacies in education and health care, instability in government leadership, and graft and corruption in institutions. Women in Southern Philippines suffer the most because they are caught in the crossfire—they are physical and sexual targets of violence on either side of the war; they may be expected to sympathize with either camp but they do not have the power nor the weapon to fight; they carry most of the burden and the responsibility for their family to survive in destitute circumstances; and they constantly evacuate and are displaced from their families, towns, and livelihood. Ongoing and continued peace efforts, dialogues, livelihood projects and support through cooperatives are all part of the healing processes of the women caught in this conflict.
Truth vs. Justice?
Popular Views on the Truth and Reconciliation Commission and the Special Court For Sierra Leone
Edward Sawyer and Tim Kelsall
Abstract: In Sierra Leone international transitional justice has been pursued via a two-pronged approach. On one, restorative prong, a Truth and Reconciliation Commission has attempted to provide an accurate historical record of the conflict, and to reconcile victims and perpetrators. On the other, retributive prong, an international tribunal is prosecuting individuals for war crimes and crimes against humanity. This strategy has been much debated, but largely at elite levels. Arguably, however, it is at the grassroots where the two institutions face their greatest challenge. To provide a bottom-up view, this article discusses the results of a popular opinion survey. The results show that overall understanding of the Commission and Court are poor and that, partly as a result, the two organs are perceived to have had limited success. In spite of this, most respondents continue to think that they are important to peace in Sierra Leone. Statistical, cultural, methodological, and qualitative interpretations of these findings are discussed. The results provide pointers to the prospects for transitional justice models of this type.
Teaching Gandhi in Estonia
David J. Smith
In the fall 2003, I had the privilege of participating in the U.S. Fulbright Scholar program. My grant took me to Tartu University in Tartu, Estonia. In this article, I wish to describe my experiences and offer my impressions of teaching overseas in the hopes of inspiring other educators to pursue opportunities teaching and learning peace and conflict abroad. It is particularly important that American educators experience other cultures and perspectives to ensure that their craft is relevant, accurate, and continues to maintain a worldview. This is critical in our field, which by its nature is current, ever changing, interdisciplinary, and cross-cultural. To only offer viewpoints that are U.S.-centric fails to incorporate the global perspectives that characterize not only our specialty, but all disciplines and fields today...
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Diplomatic Efforts in the Middle East: Can Psychologists and Conflict Resolution Specialists Contribute to the Negotiation Process?
By Mark J. Hovee
There are a variety of ways that a clinical psychologist can write about a particular issue or subject matter. Perhaps the more traditional route involves some form of objectified research and analysis. As much as I might like to utilize such an approach, the actual implementation of this kind of format seems to elude me. So, I have given way to the more precarious mode of communication that is both personal and experiential.
Perhaps it should be noted from the outset that the core theme here is particularly devoted to the “conflictive flashpoints” in the Middle East, and the outside powers which have inextricably been drawn to the region as of late. Like so many Americans and citizens of many other countries in the world, the unfolding events in the aftermath of September 11, 2001 have captured my attention enormously, both from a professional and personal standpoint...
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Youth Negotiating Conflict and Life: A Photo Essay
Anders Høg Hansen
Midways between Tel Aviv and Jerusalem in Israel-Palestine, around the hilly Latrun area, one can find the only Jewish-Arab village within the state of Israel. The place is called Neve Shalom/Wahat al-salam or in English, ‘Oasis of Peace’. The name may confuse visitors. It is a biblical quote used to signal an intention to try peacefully, as one of the residents explained. People who live here know it is not an ‘oasis’. The village has the West Bank border running literally through its alleys, yet it is under Israeli jurisdiction. Spiritually it may be different. It was set up in the early 1970s by Bruno Hussar, a Dominican monk of Jewish extraction born in Egypt who aimed to establish a place where Jews and Arabs could live together. Today, around 50 families, about half Jewish and half Palestinian Arabs with Israeli citizenship live there. You need Israeli citizenship, but as many Arabs in Israel do, you can also call yourself ‘Palestinian’. Hussar, the founder, a Mr. Hybrid par excellence, is buried in the village. This little fragile society is the only one of its kind in the Middle East, which also has a Jewish-Arab board, a bilingual school and an educational centre offering a range of conflict coping projects...
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